Working Towards a Landscape Information System
BORODKINE, R., GRISELIN, M. and ORMAUX, S.
University of Franche-Comte, France
Key words: Landscape, Systematic Approach, Image Bank, Content-Based
Image Retrieval Indexing, Temporality, Spatial Continuum, Image Perception,
The systematic analysis of landscape through photographs taken from
the ground, as practised by the geographers of Besanon, rests on the development
of banks of landscape images collected by sampling the area. This sampling
differs according to the size and scale of analysis, the geographic structure
of the area considered, and depends on whether a surface or a linear entity
is to be sampled. These investigations allow both spatial and temporal
study of the landscape.
Concurrently, current research into computational vision shows a need
for software which allows one to collect various perceptual features and
their characteristics as these appear to someone observing a natural scene.
So, one seeks to study factors involved in the delineation of regions of
perceptually significant images and, more generally, the interactions between
elements that are juxtaposed, superposed, and function in an emergent dynamic.
Whatever the scale of the study, large collections of photos are gathered
(hundreds to thousands): Their analysis and their restitution pose some
problems that computer science and multimedia can resolve.
In passing from the rough corpus of photos to a bank of analysed and
indexed images, we are constructing an integrated computational tool.
It has two potential uses:
We will present the architecture of the integrated tool of landscape analysis
using a landscape study from an Arctic area (Svalbard, Kings Bay, 79oN),
focusing particularly on three aspects:
To restore spatial continuum to the landscape by managing spatially and
angularly oriented mosaics of images. In addition to on-demand visualisation,
such a tool allows us to develop transects, cross-sections, and spatial
partitions linked to landscape parameters. It also allows a dynamic approach
by offering the possibility of simulated walks through the landscape and
perceptive courses, and of allowing cognitive inquiries, indeed virtual
trips. A unit of structural analysis of the image allows us to interpret
each image according to grounds, categories of objects, visual features,
triptych hue-saturation-luminance, and semantic aspects. Data collected
in this manner is analysed statistically and cartographically.
To manage some multi-temporal series of landscape images and to work on
the different temporalities of the landscape. Three temporal scales are
considered: yearly cycles (local and global change), seasonal cycles (landscape
phenology), and daily cycles (linked to the apparent movement) of the sun
and to the instantaneous climatic ambience.
the unit of data acquisition for the analysis of the images;
the structure of the spatial image bank; and
the multi-temporal approach using an automatic analysis of light and colour.